The 1099-MISC (Miscellaneous) tax form is utilized to report any non-employee income (NEC) to the IRS.  It is a requirement for businesses to capture and report any payments, in excess of $600, made in the course of a trade or business to a person who is not an employee or to an unincorporated business.  This form is issued by the employer and is due to the recipient on January 31st and also filed with the IRS by January 31st if reporting payments in Box 7. Otherwise, if filing on paper, forms are due the last day in February.  If filing electronically, the deadline is March 31st.

The source of the income reported on the 1099-MISC tax form can vary and dictates which box is used on this form.  The 1099-MISC form is very versatile, with many categories of payments to choose from.

Use Box 1, Rents, for reporting on any rent or lease payments made throughout the tax year for property used in business.  Any and all expenses relating to the use of the property are reported in box 1 (IE: taxes on the property).
Use Box 2, Royalties, for reporting on a royalty fee paid in excess of $10 for use within the course of business.
Use Box 3, Other Income, for reporting on payments such as: payments to the beneficiary of a deceased employee, prizes & awards, and punitive damages.
Use Box 4, Federal Income Tax Withheld, for reporting on any federal income tax withheld (IE: backup withholding.)
Use Box 5, Fishing Boat proceeds, for reporting on an individual’s share of the proceeds from the sale of a catch.
Use Box 6, Medical & Health Care Payments, for reporting payments made in the course of business to physicians or other suppliers/providers of medical and/or health care services.

1099 MISC

Use Box 7, Non-employee compensation (NEC), for reporting payments made to independent contractors, fees paid for professional services including from one professional to another, referral fees, and commissions. The exchanges of services with value between individuals also should be reported in Box 7. Generally, amounts reportable in box 7 are subject to self-employment tax.
Use Box 8, Substitute for reporting payments made in lieu of dividends or interest, for aggregate payments of at least $10 of substitute payments received by a broker for a customer in lieu of dividends or tax-exempt interest as a result of a loan of a customer's securities.
Use Box 9, Payer made sales of $5000 or more, as an informational box only and is checked when there is a sale of $5000 or more of consumer products to a buyer for resale. There is no dollar amount to enter in this box.  If reporting an amount for direct sales of $5,000 or more in box 7, also check box 9.
Use Box 10, Crop Insurance Proceeds, for reporting on proceeds paid to farmers by insurance companies.
Use Box 11, Excess Golden Parachute Payment, for a payment in the nature of a compensation. The payment is to, or for the benefit of, a disqualified individual.
Use Box 14, Gross Proceeds Paid to an Attorney, for a payment made to an attorney in the course of your trade or business in connection with legal services, but not for the attorney’s services, (IE: A settlement).
Use Box 15A, Section 409A Deferrals, for current year deferrals to a nonemployee under a nonqualified deferred compensation (NQDC) plan that is subject to the requirements of section 409A, plus any earnings on current and prior year deferrals.
Use Box 15b, Section 409B, for payments of income as a nonemployee under an NQDC plan that does not meet the requirements of section 409A. This amount is also included in Box 7 as nonemployee compensation. Any amount included in box 15a that is currently taxable is also included in this box.
Use Boxes 16–18 to show state or local income tax withheld from the payments.

For more information, the 1099-MISC instructions can be found here, https://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/i1099msc.pdf